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        CRI实用英语Unit 49 Cool Treats in Summer

        Part 1 The Evolution of Ice Cream 冰淇淋进化史

        Ice cream's origins are known to reach back as far as the second century B.C., although no specific date of origin nor inventor has been indisputably credited with its discovery. We know that Alexander the Great enjoyed snow and ice flavored with honey and nectar. Biblical references also show that King Solomon was fond of iced drinks during harvesting. During the Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Caesar (A.D. 54-86) frequently sent runners into the mountains for snow, which was then flavored with fruits and juices.

        Over a thousand years later, Marco Polo returned to Italy from the Far East with a recipe that closely resembled what is now called sherbet. Historians estimate that this recipe evolved into ice cream sometime in the 16th century. England seems to have discovered ice cream at the same time, or perhaps even earlier than the Italians. "Cream Ice," as it was called, appeared regularly at the table of Charles I during the 17th century.

        France was introduced to similar frozen desserts in 1553 by the Italian Catherine de Medici when she became the wife of Henry II of France. It wasn't until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public.

        The first official account of ice cream in America comes from a letter written in 1700 by a guest of Maryland Governor William Bladen. The first advertisement for ice cream in this country appeared in the New York Gazette on May 12, 1777, when confectioner Philip Lenzi announced that ice cream was available "almost every day."

        Records kept by a Chatham Street, New York, merchant show that President George Washington spent approximately $200 for ice cream during the summer of 1790. Inventory records of Mount Vernon taken after Washington's death revealed "two pewter ice cream pots."

        President Thomas Jefferson was said to have a favorite 18-step recipe for an ice cream delicacy that resembled a modern-day Baked Alaska. Check out President Jefferson's vanilla ice cream recipe here. In 1812, Dolley Madison served a magnificent strawberry ice cream creation at President Madison's second inaugural banquet at the White House.

        Until 1800, ice cream remained a rare and exotic dessert enjoyed mostly by the elite. Around 1800, insulated ice houses were invented. Manufacturing ice cream soon became an industry in America, pioneered in 1851 by a Baltimore milk dealer named Jacob Fussell.

        Like other American industries, ice cream production increased because of technological innovations, including steam power, mechanical refrigeration, the homogenizer, electric power and motors, packing machines, and new freezing processes and equipment. In addition, motorized delivery vehicles dramatically changed the industry.

        Due to ongoing technological advances, today's total frozen dairy annual production in the United States is more than 1.6 billion gallons.

        Wide availability of ice cream in the late 19th century led to new creations. In 1874, the American soda fountain shop and the profession of the "soda jerk" emerged with the invention of the ice cream soda.

        In response to religious criticism for eating "sinfully" rich ice cream sodas on Sundays, ice cream merchants left out the carbonated water and invented the ice cream "Sunday" in the late 1890's. The name was eventually changed to "sundae" to remove any connection with the Sabbath.

        Ice cream became an edible morale symbol during World War II. Each branch of the military tried to outdo the others in serving ice cream to its troops. In 1945, the first "floating ice cream parlor" was built for sailors in the western Pacific. When the war ended, and dairy product rationing was lifted, America celebrated its victory with ice cream. Americans consumed over 20 quarts of ice cream per person in 1946.

        In the 1940's through the 50's, ice cream production was relatively constant in the United States. As more prepackaged ice cream was sold through supermarkets, traditional ice cream parlors and soda fountains started to disappear. Now, specialty ice cream stores and unique restaurants that feature ice cream dishes have surged in popularity. These stores and restaurants are popular with those who remember the ice cream shops and soda fountains of days past, as well as with new generations of ice cream fans.

        冰淇淋的起源说法很多,西方传说公元前4世纪左右,亚历山大大帝远征埃及时,将阿尔?#20843;?#23665;的冬雪保存下来,将水果或果汁用其冷冻后食用,从而增强了士兵的士气。还有记载显示,巴勒斯坦人利用洞穴或峡谷中的冰雪驱除炎热。

        在各种说法?#26657;?#26368;具说服力的还是?#21152;?#20013;国。1292年,在马可·波罗游历中国后,记载他将在?#26412;?#26368;爱吃的冻奶的配方带回威尼斯,并在意大利北部流传开来。东方的传统冰冻食品经马可·波罗传入西方,并得到进一步发展,实现了产业化,从而诞生了今天的冰淇淋。

        冰淇淋风靡全世界,是在1660年前后,在巴黎最早开业的Cafe Procope,意大利人Cotelli制造出在桔子或柠?#23454;?#20013;加入香味的果汁后,将其冻结制成冰果并进行销售。

        但这时的产品冰晶大,?#29616;?#20912;淇淋更接近于冰冻果汁。最先开始制造出今天这样冰晶小而柔软的产品,是从1774年法国路易国王的御用厨师开始的。

        这时被称为奶油冰,后来随着大量使用浓缩乳、炼乳、奶粉等原料,才开始称其为冰淇淋。接着,冰淇淋经法国传入英国、美国,逐渐被人们所认知。

        Part 2 Cool Treats in Summer 夏日去吃冰

        Dialogue Script 1 对话原文 1

        Peter: I love cool snacks on hot days.
        Tina: Coming to this place beats getting Popsicles at 7-ELEVEN any day.
        Peter: Ice cream parlors used to be everywhere. Now, few are left.
        Tina: Hmm. We could get hot fudge sundaes.
        Peter: Every dish comes with two scoops of ice cream, three toppings, and two kinds of syrups.
        Tina: Let's get this dish called " The Trough".
        Peter: It sounds big.
        Tina: It is. If we can finish it, it's free!

        讲解:

        1 .对话?#26657;琍eter 和Tina商量着要一起去冰淇淋店吃冰淇淋。冰淇淋店的说法是 ice cream parlor。cool snacks 这里就是指“冰点,凉品?#20445;?#20063;可以说cool treats。

        2. Tina说去冰淇淋店吃冰淇淋要?#28909;?#20415;利店买冰棒强。这里的7-ELEVEN应该是一个便利店的名称。Popsicle是“冰棒”的意思,是一个俚语词汇。

        3. Coming to this place beats getting Popsicles at 7-ELEVEN any day. 这句话当中的beat表示“胜过,比…强?#20445;?#27604;如说,Nothing beats home cooking. 什么也不如家里的?#20849;?#22909;吃。You can't beat Italian clothes. 意大利的时装无与伦比。

        4. Peter感叹说以前到处都是冰淇淋店,现在没剩几家了。Now, few are left. 当中的few本身就带有否定的意味,表示“没有多少?#34180;?#20294;是a few这个词组却表示“有一些?#34180;?#36825;样的用法跟little 和a little是一样的,只?#36824;齠ew 和a few是用来修饰可数名词,而little和 a little是用来修饰不可数名?#23454;摹?

        5. Tina提议点热奶油糖浆圣代,fudge指“奶油巧克力糖浆?#20445;?#29992;奶油、巧克力、糖浆煮的浓糖浆,经常趁热淋在冰淇淋上食用,所以这里说hot fudge。sundae大家就比较熟悉了,就是我们通常说的“圣代?#20445;?#26159;一种冰淇淋的花样吃法,将几勺冰淇淋盛在杯子?#26657;?#21152;上各种糖浆和配料食用。在?#31995;?#22522;店里我们就能吃到,?#36824;?#22312;麦当劳里可不?#23567;?#22307;代?#20445;?#32780;是叫做“新地?#34180;?

        6. 这家冰淇淋店的圣代每份都可以有两球冰淇淋,上面放三种配料,淋两种糖浆。Tina就想点这种叫做?#20843;?#26009;槽”的圣代,?#36824;?#20998;量很大。如果顾客能把这种分量很大的圣代吃完的?#22467;?#23601;免费。可能冰淇淋店里的一种促销活动吧。

        Dialogue Script 2 对话原文 2

        Tina: They don't have my favorite flavor.
        Peter: Can't you just order something else?
        Tina: I just want one scoop of chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream.
        Peter: They've gotta have something else.
        Tina: I guess I could get something with cookies in it.
        Peter: While you order, I'm gonna go look at the candy section.
        Tina: Hey, can you get me a gobstopper?
        Peter: No problem. Order me a Yukon Blast, would you? Coconut and peanut butter ice cream. And help me pick the toppings and syrup.

        讲解:

        1. 对话中Tina和Peter在冰淇淋店点冰淇淋吃。Tina抱怨说店里没有她最喜欢的口味,flavor表示“食物的特别的味道?#20445;?#27604;如说,They sell six different flavors of ice-cream. 他们卖六种不同口味的冰淇淋。Peter劝Tina可以点别的口味的。

        2. Tina要了一球巧克力脆片饼干冰淇淋。冰淇淋店里的冰淇淋都是以scoop “一勺,一球”为单位的。所以Tina这里说,one scoop of chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream. cookie dough就是“饼干块”的意思。

        3. 但是这?#19994;?#37324;没有这种口味的冰淇淋,Tina只想要里面有饼干块的冰淇淋。Peter 趁Tina点冰淇淋的空档要去糖果区逛逛。candy section,就是指“糖果区?#20445;?#32654;国有些冰淇淋店会附设卖糖果的地方。

        4. Tina求Peter给她带个大糖球,就是gobstopper。Peter也求Tina帮他点一份“育空狂欢节?#20445;琣 Yukon Blast,是一种冰淇淋的种类。Yukon,就是指“育空地区?#20445;?#26159;位于加拿大西北部的一个地区。blast是“狂欢”的意思。

        5. Peter又解释了一下什?#35789;恰?#32946;空狂欢节?#20445;?#23601;是椰子冰淇淋和花生酱冰淇淋。他还央求Tina帮他选择上面的配料和糖浆。topping 指“放在食物上面的配料?#20445;瑂yrup 是指“糖浆?#20445;?#21487;?#38405;?#22312;冰淇淋或者面包上吃。

        Dialogue Script 3 对话原文 3

        Tina: I've never seen so many ice cream choices before. I don't know what to order.
        Waiter: Try our root beer float. Vanilla ice cream in a glass of root beer.
        Tina: I don't like root beer. But this looks good. And ice cream cone dipped in melted chocolate.
        Waiter: That's our house specialty. That and our banana splits.
        Tina: I'll have a tiramisu-flavored ice cream dip with crushed peanuts sprinkled on top.
        Waiter: Waffle cone or regular?
        Tina: Waffle for sure.

        讲解:

        1. Tina从来没见过这么多种类的冰淇淋,她都不知道该点什么了。店员跟她推荐root beer float,漂浮沙士。float是指“漂浮?#20445;?#19968;种在汽水里加入冰淇淋的冷饮。root beer 就是指?#21543;?#22763;?#20445;?#26159;一种从某些植物的根部提取汁液或精制成充二氧化碳气体的软饮料。

        2. 但是Tina不喜欢沙士。她觉得蛋卷冰淇淋浸融化的巧克力看起来?#20849;?#38169;。店员说这款冰淇淋是本店的特别推荐产品,house specialty,就是我们通常说的“招牌菜”什么的。还有banana splits,香?#27934;?

        3. 香?#27934;?#20063;是一种冰淇淋的花样吃法。把香蕉放在长型浅盘?#26657;?#25918;上冰淇淋、鲜奶油和巧克力酱等配料。Tina点了提拉米苏口味的冰淇淋浸巧克力,上面洒碎花生。tiramisu是一种意大利甜食。dip的意思是“浸,沾?#20445;?#36825;里也当作名词,是“浸巧克力酱的甜筒冰淇淋?#34180;?

        4. 店员又问Tina是要威化饼甜筒还是一般的甜筒,cone 原来指?#30333;?#24418;物,圆锥体?#20445;?#22240;为盛冰淇淋的?#24052;?#19968;般都是圆锥形的,所以直接用cone来指“?#24052;玻?#29980;筒?#34180;ina说当然要威化饼甜筒了,for sure这里的意思是“当然?#20445;?#30456;当于of course。

        Dialogue Script 4 对话原文 4

        Waitress: And what would you like?
        Peter: I'll take a scoop of cookies 'n cream and mint chocolate chip.
        Waitress: And toppings with that?
        Peter: Yeah, I want pralines and pecans on top with some whipped cream.
        Waitress: That's three toppings. You still have two kinds of syrup.
        Peter: Caramel and chocolate syrup.
        Waitress: I'll add a cherry on top just because I like you.
        Peter: Thanks. And I want it in a cup, with a strawberry shake on the side.

        讲解:

        1. 现在我们来看看Peter点了什么口味的冰淇淋,他点的是一球饼干加奶油和一球薄荷巧克力脆片冰淇淋。上面的toppings Peter要的是坚果糖 pralines,山核桃 pecans和一点发泡奶油 whipped cream。花样还挺多的。

        2. 另外还可以加两种糖浆,Peter点的是焦糖和巧克力糖浆,Caramel and chocolate syrup。店?#34987;?#32473;Peter的冰淇淋上面加了一颗樱桃,看起来更加可口了。Peter不要下面的甜筒,而是要求把冰淇淋装在杯子里,另外来一杯草莓奶昔。on the side作状语,表示?#24052;?#21152;?#25345;?#19996;西”的意思。
        Dialogue Script 5 对话原文 5

        Tina: Wow, this is so delicious! The chocolate coating is so crunchy.
        Peter: You'd better slow down.
        Tina: But I can't. it's addictive.
        Peter: So's mine. They even put pieces of coconut into it.
        Tina: Oh. My head is starting to hurt.
        Peter: I told you to slow down. Now you're getting a brain freeze.
        Tina: My eyes and nose are frozen. Ohh...
        Peter: Close your mouth and breathe out of your nose. That helps.
        Tina: I should slow down, but it's just so good.

        讲解:

        1. 点完了冰淇淋,两个人开始很过瘾地吃起来。Tina觉得这冰淇淋真是太好吃了,外面的那层巧克力很脆。The chocolate coating is so crunchy. coating是指?#24052;?#22771;,外面包裹的一层?#20445;?#26159;从coat 这个词变化过来的,还是很形象的。

        2. Peter看Tina狼吞虎?#23454;模八?#24930;下来,不要?#34180;?#20294;是Tina没有办法慢下来,因为吃冰淇淋会上瘾的。addictive 是“会让人上瘾的”意思,比如说,Coffee is addictive in a mild way. 咖啡能稍微使人上瘾。

        3. Peter的冰淇淋也非常可口,里面甚至还有椰子肉。一会儿,Tina的头开始疼了,因为她吃的太快了,结果现在吃冰吃到?#35837;?#20102;,Now you're getting a brain freeze. 当中的brain freeze就是指“因为吃冰的东西太快而导致的?#35837;邸薄?#29616;在Tina感觉眼睛和鼻子?#32423;?#20725;了。Peter教她?#28814;?#38381;上,用鼻子来呼气,会感觉好一点。

        Part 3 An Ice Cream Truck 冰淇淋车

        Dialogue Script 1 对话原文 1

        Peter: I can make better ice cream than this.
        Tina: You can make ice cream?
        Peter: Yeah. It's easy. All you need is ice, salt, cream, milk and sugar.
        Tina: So you just put it all together and bam, you have ice cream, right?
        Peter: Wrong. You have to put it into an ice cream maker. Old-style ones were operated with a hand crank.
        Tina: That sounds tiring.
        Peter: It's kind of fun. Everybody has to do a little cranking if they want some ice cream.

        讲解:

        1. Peter说他可以自己做冰淇淋,而且做的要比冰淇淋店里卖的还好吃。他?#24213;?#20912;淇淋很简单,只需要冰块、盐、鲜奶油、牛奶和糖就够了。Tina不明白,?#35757;?#25226;这些东西混合到一块,冰淇淋就能?#36828;?#20570;好了吗?

        2. 她说So you just put it all together and bam, you have ice cream, right?这句话当中有一个非常口语话的用法,就是...and bam,...做?#22235;?#20123;事,然后砰的一生,?#25345;?#19996;西就变出来了。表示?#28595;持?#19996;西得来太容易?#34180;am在这里更像是一个拟声词。

        3. 当然没有那么容易就做出冰淇淋来。必须把这些材料一起放进冰淇淋制造机当?#26657;鲜?#30340;冰淇淋机器?#24378;?#19968;个手把来操作的。hand crank指“可以摇动旋转的把手?#20445;琧rank在这里做名词,crank作动?#23454;?#26102;候表示 “摇把手?#34180;?

        4. Tina觉得自己做冰淇淋很累人,还很麻烦。Peter告诉她说还蛮好玩的。每个想吃冰淇淋的人都得来摇两下把手,尽一份自己的力量,?#36129;?#36739;有情趣。
        Dialogue Script 2 对话原文 2

        Tina: I'm craving ice cream again.
        Peter: We could get a bucket of Ben and Jerry's at the supermarket.
        Tina: Let's go to a H?agen Dazs parlor.
        Peter: There aren't any around here.
        Tina: All right. Too bad we don't have one of those ice cream makers.
        Peter: You'll love Ben and Jerry's Cherry Garcia. It's chocolate cherry flavored.
        Tina: Hey! Listen! There's an ice cream truck!
        Peter: Quick! Let's run after it!
        ( Later)
        Tina: Whew. That was close. You almost got away.
        Driver: Well you should try an ice-cream sandwich. It'll help you catch your breath.
        Tina: I'll have a Klondike bar.
        Driver: You get a free Choco Taco with that.
        Tina: Cool. I haven't seen an ice cream truck in ages.
        Driver: We're a rare breed these days.

        讲解:

        1. 对话中Peter和Tina又想吃冰淇淋了。crave这个词表示“?#37322;是?#26576;事物?#20445;?#29992;法是crave /crave for sth,比如说,I was craving for a cool drink. 我非常想喝一杯冷饮。

        2. Peter提议去超?#26032;?#19968;桶冰淇淋,?#36824;齌ina好像不喜欢超市里的冰淇淋,她说要去哈根达?#36129;?#28103;淋店。但是附近却没有这样的冰淇淋店。

        3. Tina这时又觉得如果手边有一架做冰淇淋的机器也好啊,可以做自己喜欢吃的冰淇淋。突然,Tina听见了好像有一辆冰淇淋车开过来了。ice cream truck就是指“卖冰淇淋的小卡车?#20445;?#32654;国的冰淇淋车会一边行驶一边放音乐。如果你想吃冰淇淋了,就要留心听街上是不是有这样的音乐传来,?#24613;?#22909;零钱,冲出家门买你喜欢吃的冰淇淋。

        4. Peter和Tina差一点就没有追上冰淇淋车,That was close. 这句话的意思是“好险?#20445;?#34920;示“差点就要发生某件事情?#34180;?

        5. 卖冰淇淋的人建议Tina买一个冰淇淋,这样就不会喘了,原来Tina追冰淇淋?#24213;?#24471;气喘吁吁的。catch one's breath,某人觉得不再气喘,顺过气来。那么跟它相对的就是lose one's breath喘?#36824;?#27668;来。

        6. Tina要了一个冰淇淋?#34892;?#30340;巧克力饼干,a Klondike bar 。Klondike bar 是美国著名的冰淇淋点心品牌,在大片方形巧克力饼干中间夹一层很厚的冰淇淋。

        7. 买一个Klondike bar 还可以得到一份免费赠送的巧克力冰淇淋塔可饼,就是Choco Taco,也是美国冰淇淋点心品牌,在墨西哥玉米薄饼Taco中间夹冰淇淋和巧克力。Tina说好久都没有见到冰淇淋车了,in ages表示“好久,好多年?#20445;?#36319;in years差?#27426;唷?

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